One of the most prominent surface proteins of the influenza virus is hemagglutinin . This protein is predominantly responsible for the attachment of the virus to a host cell as well as the subsequent internalization of viral particles. Upon entering the organism, the viral infection is promoted by recognition of a host cell’s sialic acid receptor . Once bound to the receptor, influenza penetrates the cell in the process of endocytosis. Finally, the presence of a viral genome in a host cell induces an assembly of viral particles which consequently fuel the infection.
The consensus held among experts suggests that a prevalent source of spreading of the influenza virus is caused by droplets generated when sneezing, coughing or talking. Furthermore, the infection spread is possible even before the development of symptoms. As a result of its high tendency to cause epidemics and a notable impact on the mortality rate as well as economics due to temporary employee absence, there is an indisputable need for preventing influenza outbreaks.
One of the mechanisms to minimize the spreading of influenza in the early detection of the virus. Biosensors offer an easy-to-use , cheap and rapid solution suitable for both, point-of-care as well as home application. Additionally, they serve as a tool for democratizing health-care access in the world. As a consequence, biosensors have a significant place in the current pursuit of advancing healthcare and have a vast potential to substantially improve the quality of human’s life.